Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles RSS Feed for Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles en-us Frontiers Feed Generator,version:1 2020-04-21T13:37:50.1168916+00:00 60 Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-04-21T00:00:00Z Rachel Pietracatella Danielle Brady 体育博彩Increased pressure on risk industries to reduce their negative impact on society has resulted in an increasing volume of “risk” and “responsibility” communications from interest groups known as Social Aspects Public Relations Organizations (SAPROs). SAPROs have been criticized for being the “front groups” of risk industries (e.g., the tobacco, gambling, sugar, and alcohol industries). Operating within the neoliberal policy framework, SAPROs seek to forestall regulation and prioritize industry profits over public health. Building on risk industry research from the public health sphere, this article examines the SAPRO phenomenon and situates it in the political public relations (PR) literature. Specifically, it considers how SAPROs perform an indirect lobbying function on behalf of their funding industries. Using DrinkWise as an example of an alcohol SAPRO, this article shows that SAPROs represent a novel development in front group strategy and examines how this development intersects with neoliberalism. This article also argues that SAPROs are deployed by risk industries to hegemonically promote the idea of personal responsibility and that their indirect lobbying function may be necessary to the continuance of neoliberal policies.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-04-17T00:00:00Z Jens Emborg Steven E. Daniels Gregg B. Walker How can one simultaneously hold multiple trust judgments—some positive, some negative—and what relevance does this have to natural resource management processes? The paper examines trust through a lens of multiple simultaneous trust judgments, with application to the literature on trust in natural resource management. The conceptual contributions are (1) a clear distinction between trust and distrust, (2) how multiple trust/distrust judgments can co-exist, and (3) how multiple trust judgments can be assigned to individual vs. social/institutional scales. A framework for trust/distrust evaluation emerges in the form of a Trust/Distrust Matrix. One dimension of the matrix is the scales to which trust judgments may be assigned and one is the trust/distrust-judgments one makes that can either be calculus-based or identification-based. A set of propositions relevant to natural resource management are derived from the matrix. The fundamental purpose of this article is to bridge theory and practice.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-04-16T00:00:00Z Katherine Furman In this paper I argue that rumors pose a challenge to effective science communication. I also argue that it is sometimes reasonable for ordinary laypeople to trust rumors over the experts. The argument goes like this. There are strong fact-value entanglements in the sciences. Further, my friends and neighbors may be more likely than the experts to make value judgments that line up with my own. As such, it can make sense for me to pay close attention to their testimony. It may even make sense for me to trust testimony within my peer network—or “rumors”—more than the experts, especially if the experts' values are especially opaque or suspicious to me. I ground this discussion in the recent West Africa Ebola outbreak, where rumors posed a substantial challenge to containing the epidemic.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-04-15T00:00:00Z Devendra Sharma Esteban G. Baus Mario J. Grijalva Benjamin R. Bates Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease that disproportionately affects impoverished rural communities. Insecticide-based approaches are inconsistently performed and exorbitantly priced for the communities affected. The present study considers an alternative approach to primary prevention of Chagas disease using entertainment education. As part of an ongoing effort in rural Ecuador, we worked with the children of the community of Guara, national insect control workers, and academicians to co-develop a song to promote behaviors related to preventing Chagas. Through an analysis of the song, we demonstrate opportunities for meaningful intervention in rural communities, as well as challenges to implementing an entertainment education approach when working with national stakeholders.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-04-15T00:00:00Z Alan Rumsey Lauren W. Reed Francesca Merlan How do children learn to understand and use complex syntactic constructions? In English, Diessel (2004) shows that they do so in two different ways. Complex sentences with dependent clauses (e.g., “Peter promised that he would come”) develop out of simple sentences that are gradually expanded into multi-clause ones. Complex sentences with coordinate clauses (e.g., “He tried hard, but he failed”) develop by integrating two independent sentences into a single two-clause unit. Here we expand on that research by focusing on the acquisition of a kind of complex syntactic structure which involves both dependency and coordination—the clause chain—in Ku Waru, a Papuan language spoken in the Western Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Clause chains are constructions coordinating multiple clauses in sequence, where the non-final or “medial” clauses are in a dependent relationship with the final clause. One function of clause chains, which is often taken to be the prototypical one, is to refer to a series of events in sequence. Some Ku Waru clause chains do refer to sequential events. Other Ku Waru clause chains containing particular verbs refer to single events, sometimes with the particular verb providing aspectual or adverbial qualification (“keep doing,” “do quickly,” etc.). In this article, we track the acquisition of several different kinds of clause chains based on longitudinal recordings of four children acquiring Ku Waru as their first language between the ages of 1½ and 5. We show that, although there are differences among the children in the ages at which they acquire the various kinds of clause chain, all four of them follow the same series of steps in doing so. In conclusion, we compare our findings to Diessel's for English. We find that they are similar in some ways and different in others, which may be related to the differences between subordinate constructions, coordinate non-dependent constructions and coordinate-dependent constructions.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-04-09T00:00:00Z Hollie Smith Sunshine Menezes Katherine Canfield Rachel Guldin Meredith Morgoch Katharine McDuffie Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-04-08T00:00:00Z R. Harald Baayen Eva Smolka Both localist and connectionist models, based on experimental results obtained for English and French, assume that the degree of semantic compositionality of a morphologically complex word is reflected in how it is processed. Since priming experiments using English and French morphologically related prime-target pairs reveal stronger priming when complex words are semantically transparent (e.g., refill–fill) compared to semantically more opaque pairs (e.g., restrain–strain), localist models set up connections between complex words and their stems only for semantically transparent pairs. Connectionist models have argued that the effect of transparency should arise as an epiphenomenon in PDP networks. However, for German, a series of studies has revealed equivalent priming for both transparent and opaque prime-target pairs, which suggests mediation of lexical access by the stem, independent of degrees of semantic compositionality. This study reports a priming experiment that replicates equivalent priming for transparent and opaque pairs. We show that these behavioral results can be straightforwardly modeled by a computational implementation of Word and Paradigm Morphology (wpm), Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl). Just as wpm, ndl eschews the theoretical construct of the morpheme. Ndl succeeds in modeling the German priming data by inspecting the extent to which a discrimination network pre-activates the target lexome from the orthographic properties of the prime. Measures derived from an ndl network, complemented with a semantic similarity measure derived from distributional semantics, predict lexical decision latencies with somewhat improved precision compared to classical measures, such as word frequency, prime type, and human association ratings. We discuss both the methodological implications of our results, as well as their implications for models of the mental lexicon.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-03-31T00:00:00Z Satveer Kaur-Gill Mohan Jyoti Dutta Munirah Binte Bashir 体育博彩This paper reports the formative research findings of a culture-centered heart health intervention with Malay community members belonging to low-income households. The community-based culture-centered intervention entailed working in the grassroots with community stakeholders to tailor a heart health campaign with and for low-income Malay Singaporeans. Community stakeholders designed and developed the heart health communicative infrastructures during six focus group sessions detailed in the results. The intervention included building smoking cessation information accessible to the community, the curation of heart healthy Malay centric recipes, and developing culturally responsive information infrastructures to understand a myocardial infarction. The intervention sought to bridge the gap for the community where there is an absence of culturally-centered communicative infrastructures on heart health.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-03-20T00:00:00Z Dennis Nikolas Pauly Guido Nottbusch German orthography systematically marks all nouns (even other nominalized word classes) by capitalizing their first letter. It is often claimed that readers benefit from the uppercase-letter syntactic and semantic information, which makes the processing of sentences easier (e.g., Bock et al., 1985, 1989). In order to test this hypothesis, we asked 54 German readers to read single sentences systematically manipulated by a target word (N). In the experimental condition (EXP), we used semantic priming (in the following example: sickcold) in order to build up a strong expectation of a noun, which was actually an attribute for the following noun (N+1) (translated to English e.g., “The sick writer had a cold (N) nose (N+1) …”). The sentences in the control condition were built analogously, but word N was purposefully altered (keeping word length and frequency constant) to make its interpretation as a noun extremely unlikely (e.g., “The sick writer had a blue (N) nose (N+1) …”). In both conditions, the sentences were presented either following German standard orthography (Cap) or in lowercase spelling (NoCap). The capitalized nouns in the EXP/Cap condition should then prevent garden-path parsing, as capital letters can be recognized parafoveally. However, in the EXP/NoCap condition, we expected a garden-path effect on word N+1 affecting first-pass fixations and the number of regressions, as the reader realizes that word N is instead an adjective. As the control condition does not include a garden-path, we expected to find (small) effects of the violation of the orthographic rule in the CON/NoCap condition, but no garden-path effect. As a global result, it can be stated that reading sentences in which nouns are not marked by a majuscule slows a native German reader down significantly, but from an absolute point of view, the effect is small. Compared with other manipulations (e.g., transpositions or substitutions), a lowercase letter still represents the correct allograph in the correct position without affecting phonology. Furthermore, most German readers do have experience with other alphabetic writing systems that lack consistent noun capitalization, and in (private) digital communication lowercase nouns are quite common. Although our garden-path sentences did not show the desired effect, we found an indication of grammatical pre-processing enabled by the majuscule in the regularly spelled sentences: In the case of high noun frequency, we post hoc体育博彩 located parafovea-on-fovea effects, i.e., longer fixation durations, on the attributive adjective (word N). These benefits of capitalization could only be detected under specific circumstances. In other cases, we conclude that longer reading durations are mainly the result of disturbance in readers' habituation when the expected capitalization is missing.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-03-04T00:00:00Z Mai Nguyen-Phuong-Mai 体育博彩In cross-cultural communication and adjunct disciplines such as cross-cultural management and international business, there is a negativity bias of seeing cultural differences as a source of potential issues. The emergence of Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) questions this problem-focused approach. This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion from neuroscience's perspectives in several ways. Firstly, it provides a neurological look at this bias. Secondly, it proposes that the problem-focused approach may (1) give us a biased outlook of cross-cultural encounters rather than a reality, (2) hinder creativity, (3) lead to the rebound effect, and (4) turn belief into reality. Finally, based on insight from neuroscience and adopting the POS lens with the connection between POS and creativity, it's recommended that future research takes three directions: (1) Using similarity as the starting point; (2) strategize body language, context and theories; and (3) develop a multicultural mind. In essence, the paper contributes to existing knowledge of the field by employing an interdisciplinary approach, aiming to gain a more holistic view, provoke thoughts, and trigger future empirical studies.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-02-28T00:00:00Z Neha Trivedi Melinda Krakow Katherine Hyatt Hawkins Emily B. Peterson Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou Growing evidence points to the significant amount of health misinformation on social media platforms, requiring users to assess the believability of messages and trustworthiness of message sources. This mixed methods experimental study fills this gap in research by examining social media users' (n = 53) trust assessment of simulated cancer-related messages using eye-tracking, surveys, and cognitive interviews. Posts varied by information veracity (evidence-based vs. non-evidence-based) and source type (government agency, health organization, lay individual); topics included HPV vaccination and sun safety. Among sources, participants reported trusting the government more than individuals, regardless of veracity. When viewing non-evidence-based messages, participants reported higher trust in health organizations than individuals. Participants with high trust in message source tended to report high message believability. Furthermore, attention (measured by total fixation duration) spent on viewing the source of the post was not associated with the amount of trust in the source of message, which suggests that participants may have utilized other cognitive heuristics when processing the posts. Through post-experiment interviews, participants described higher trust in government due to reputation and familiarity. Further verification of the quality of information is needed to combat the spread of misinformation on Facebook. Future research should consider messaging strategies that include sources that are already trusted and begin to build trust among other credible sources.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-02-27T00:00:00Z Ben Young Landis Aleszu Bajak Jenny F. de la Hoz José G. González Robin Gose Claudia Pineda Tibbs Becky Oskin Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-02-27T00:00:00Z Edmund W. J. Lee Andrew Z. H. Yee The rapidly increasing volume of health data generated from digital technologies have ushered in an unprecedented opportunity for health research. Despite their promises, big data approaches in understanding human behavior often do not consider conceptual premises that provide meaning to social and behavioral data. In this paper, we update the definition of big data, and review different types and sources of health data that researchers need to grapple with. We highlight three problems in big data approaches—data deluge, data hubris, and data opacity—that are associated with the blind use of computational analysis. Finally, we lay out the importance of cultivating health data sense-making—the ability to integrate theory-led and data-driven approaches to process different types of health data and translating findings into tangible health outcomes—and illustrate how theorizing can matter in the age of big data.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-02-21T00:00:00Z Emily Polk Sibyl Diver This article draws on environmental justice (EJ) scholarship to develop a novel concept of equity framing that can be used to achieve more inclusive science communication. We argue that centering equity in our communications framing can provide an essential point of access for marginalized communities to engage with scientific communication, and also an important opportunity for scientific researchers and writers to become more accountable to disadvantaged communities. Viewing science communication through an equity lens asks communicators to not only frame science in ways that are salient to particular audiences, but it also asks communicators to attend to particular discriminatory historical practices that have targeted marginalized communities, and continue to do so through current scientific discourse. EJ strategies for equity framing include asking science communicators to (1) become aware of their own positionality and partial perspectives, (2) name sources of inequity that arise from uneven power relations, and (3) find intersections with initiatives that are rooted in the experiences of disadvantaged communities. To ground our approach to equity framing, we also present our experiences teaching Stanford University's first comprehensive class on environmental justice as a case study. Key outcomes included: adding missing perspectives to scientific knowledge production by inviting representatives from diverse and marginalized communities to teach us; increasing the social relevance of scientific findings by asking our students to center the concerns and insights of marginalized communities in their communication; and encouraging collective action to address equity concerns and achieve a healthier society for all.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-02-21T00:00:00Z Franzisca Weder Amornpan Tungarat Stella Lemke Narratives represent storied ways of knowing and communicating, thus, have always been a key feature in media and communication research. In our contribution, a concept to explain sustainability-related cognitive dissonances as well as a new version of a narrative inquiry is introduced to capture reflections on experiences of sustainability and individual assessments of (un)sustainable behavior over time. We perceive storytelling as an action, as act of problematization which uncovers cognitive dissonances and coping strategies. Using Rory's Story Cubes® (dice with pictograms), we stimulated 35 interviewees from various cultural backgrounds (Asian, European, Anglo-American) to “story” sustainability-related life events into order and meaning. Our evaluation of the interviews1 focused on the story as a whole, which was then linked to the individual biographical background to understand motives for and moral conflicts about (un)sustainable behavior. In the paper we discuss and critique this theoretical concept and the related innovative inquiry form in the area of environmental communication research to gain a better understanding of individual perceptions of sustainability, moral dissonances, and cognitive friction occurring in relation to sustainability-related issues.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-02-19T00:00:00Z J. Kevin Ford Shawn J. Riley Taylor K. Lauricella Jenna A. Van Fossen Trust, defined as a willingness of one entity (e. g., stakeholders) to be vulnerable to the discretionary actions of another (e.g., a wildlife management agencies), is a key attribute of effective environmental management. A lack of clarity about which factors matter most in developing and sustaining trust creates an impediment to good governance. Our objective was to derive a set of antecedents of trust from research reported in peer-reviewed literature in natural resource and environmental science, management and policy domains. We conducted a meta-analysis of the relationships between trust and seven antecedents: reputation, communication, shared norms, and values, cooperation/support, negative past behaviors, satisfaction with/quality of services, and fairness. We also examined whether relationships between antecedents and trust differ depending on whether the target of trust is a specific person or the organization as an entity, as well as whether the relationship with the referent of trust is horizontal (i.e., between natural resource agencies partnering together) or vertical (i.e., between stakeholders and agencies). Results provide estimates of relationships between each antecedent and trust, as well as the relative importance of the antecedents in predicting trust. We conclude by evaluating the state of the literature on trust and providing recommendations for future research.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-02-18T00:00:00Z Andrew Laurence Carter Adam Alexander Historically, African-American farmers faced a long and challenging struggle to own land and operate independently. In recent years, several factors, including unfair policy legislation, institutionalized racism, the mechanization of agriculture, and increases in agricultural technology have exacerbated land loss and decreases in farm ownership. Currently, African-American farmers are vastly underrepresented, comprising just 2% of the nation's farmers, 0.5% of farmland and 0.2% of total agricultural sales. As a site for inquiry, this topic has been examined across many academic sub-disciplines, however, the literature has not yet explored how the erasure of the African-American farmer influences the conversation about broader diet-related health disparities in the U.S. This overlooked perspective represents a novel approach to rethinking public health interventions and may improve methods for communicating messages about healthy eating to the African American community. In this essay, we extend (Dutta, 2008) the Culture-Centered Approach (CCA) to foreground the lived experiences and perspectives of a small cohort of African-American farmers (n = 12) living in the U.S. Mid-South as an entry point to address this underexamined area of research and inform future methodological directions of study. Two key themes emerged from the thematic analysis: (1) erasure of the African-American farming tradition and land loss; and (2) solutions to change. Drawing on the understanding that systematic land loss in the African-American community has contributed to wealth disparities between African-Americans and Whites, we argue that the erasure of the African-American farming tradition within mainstream discourses has created communication inequities that disenfranchise the African-American community and may contribute to broader health inequities in food system. Our findings may offer important insights into the methodological development of more effective health campaigns within these communities.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-02-18T00:00:00Z Liz Carlisle 体育博彩In this article, I draw on my experience as an environmental social scientist and narrative nonfiction writer conducting research in working class conservative agricultural communities that frequently challenge or reject science communication. Based on my own trial-and-error path as a public intellectual committed to advancing sustainable agriculture, I present a method that I've developed to promote broader and more diverse public dialogue about environmental problem solving. Acknowledging that people interpret the world through socially-reinforced cultural cognition and pre-existing cognitive frames—and also that humans are social animals who thrive in groups I propose that frames can be the science communicator's friend. I have yet to find a community that does not have some connection to ancestral or local knowledge about community interdependence and the importance of being a good neighbor. Indeed, I often find that these “neighborliness” frames are at the very core of people's cultural cognition. Such neighborliness frames, in turn, provide a strong foundation for environmental consciousness. Thus, by being curious about a community's unique history with and knowledge about neighborliness, science communicators can help to build up frames necessary for environmental actions, while also helping cultivate broader understandings of the “neighborhood” within which communities' values and worldviews demand action.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-01-30T00:00:00Z Katherine N. Canfield Sunshine Menezes Shayle B. Matsuda Amelia Moore Alycia N. Mosley Austin Bryan M. Dewsbury Mónica I. Feliú-Mójer Katharine W. B. McDuffie Kendall Moore Christine A. Reich Hollie M. Smith Cynthia Taylor 体育博彩We live in an era of abundant scientific information, yet access to information and to opportunities for substantive public engagement with the processes and outcomes of science are still inequitably distributed. Even with increasing interest in science communication and public engagement with science, historically marginalized and minoritized individuals and communities are largely overlooked and undervalued in these efforts. To address this gap, this paper aims to define inclusive science communication and clarify and amplify the field. We present inclusive science communication as one path forward to redress the systemic problems of inequitable access to and engagement with STEMM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine). We describe the first national Inclusive Science Communication (InclusiveSciComm) Symposium held in the U.S. Based on the experience of organizing the symposium, we discuss recommendations for other convenings to help build a community of practice for inclusive science communication. In both research and practice, we advocate for more experimentation to help make inclusive science communication the future of science communication writ large, in order to engage diverse publics in their multiple ways of knowing and expand a sense of belonging in STEMM.

]]> Frontiers in Communication | New and Recent Articles 2020-01-28T00:00:00Z Jessica Love-Nichols 体育博彩This paper investigates climate change activism among sportsmen and sportswomen, or hunters and fishers—a politically conservative group with historically deep roots to environmental conservation. Recently members of this community have created an NGO that focuses solely on climate change action—Conservation Hawks—and several other long-standing organizations have begun to include climate communication and activism within their mission. This article draws on fieldwork conducted throughout the rural western U.S., including ethnographic interviews with sportsmen/sportswomen, participant observation in hunter education courses and conservation events, and publicly-available media produced by hunting-oriented conservation organizations. Using an ethnographic and discourse analytic approach, I find that three primary discursive practices are particularly important within hunting and fishing community—a performed closeness to wildlife and wild places, a privileging of experiential and embodied epistemologies, and a valorization of the past wilderness. In both interviews and sportsmen-oriented media, these discourses can be drawn on when creating doubt and climate skepticism. Increasingly, however, activist groups use the same rhetorical strategies to promote climate change action. I argue that such shared discursive practices can thus mobilize collective identities, challenge political polarization, and create new political subjectivities around climate change in the rural western United States. I also argue that these discursive practices shape the actions portrayed as reasonable responses to the climate crisis within this community. This analysis thus illuminates climate activism within an understudied group, showing the depth of the civic movement on climate change. It also specifically highlights the importance of shared discursive practices to both climate skepticism and climate activism among one politically-conservative group in the United States, rural white hunters, and fishers.